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Using natural language processing to support peer‐feedback in the age of artificial intelligence: A cross‐disciplinary framework and a research agenda

Bauer, Elisabeth ; Greisel, Martin ; Kuznetsov, Ilia ; Berndt, Markus ; Kollar, Ingo ; Dresel, Markus ; Fischer, Martin R. ; Fischer, Frank (2024)
Using natural language processing to support peer‐feedback in the age of artificial intelligence: A cross‐disciplinary framework and a research agenda.
In: British Journal of Educational Technology, 2023, 54 (5)
doi: 10.26083/tuprints-00024681
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Item Type: Article
Type of entry: Secondary publication
Title: Using natural language processing to support peer‐feedback in the age of artificial intelligence: A cross‐disciplinary framework and a research agenda
Language: English
Date: 9 February 2024
Place of Publication: Darmstadt
Year of primary publication: 2023
Place of primary publication: Oxford
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Journal or Publication Title: British Journal of Educational Technology
Volume of the journal: 54
Issue Number: 5
DOI: 10.26083/tuprints-00024681
Corresponding Links:
Origin: Secondary publication DeepGreen

Advancements in artificial intelligence are rapidly increasing. The new‐generation large language models, such as ChatGPT and GPT‐4, bear the potential to transform educational approaches, such as peer‐feedback. To investigate peer‐feedback at the intersection of natural language processing (NLP) and educational research, this paper suggests a cross‐disciplinary framework that aims to facilitate the development of NLP‐based adaptive measures for supporting peer‐feedback processes in digital learning environments. To conceptualize this process, we introduce a peer‐feedback process model, which describes learners' activities and textual products. Further, we introduce a terminological and procedural scheme that facilitates systematically deriving measures to foster the peer‐feedback process and how NLP may enhance the adaptivity of such learning support. Building on prior research on education and NLP, we apply this scheme to all learner activities of the peer‐feedback process model to exemplify a range of NLP‐based adaptive support measures. We also discuss the current challenges and suggest directions for future cross‐disciplinary research on the effectiveness and other dimensions of NLP‐based adaptive support for peer‐feedback. Building on our suggested framework, future research and collaborations at the intersection of education and NLP can innovate peer‐feedback in digital learning environments.

Practitioner notes

What is already known about this topic

• There is considerable research in educational science on peer‐feedback processes.

• Natural language processing facilitates the analysis of students' textual data.

• There is a lack of systematic orientation regarding which NLP techniques can be applied to which data to effectively support the peer‐feedback process.

What this paper adds

• A comprehensive overview model that describes the relevant activities and products in the peer‐feedback process.

• A terminological and procedural scheme for designing NLP‐based adaptive support measures.

• An application of this scheme to the peer‐feedback process results in exemplifying the use cases of how NLP may be employed to support each learner activity during peer‐feedback.

Implications for practice and/or policy

• To boost the effectiveness of their peer‐feedback scenarios, instructors and instructional designers should identify relevant leverage points, corresponding support measures, adaptation targets and automation goals based on theory and empirical findings.

• Management and IT departments of higher education institutions should strive to provide digital tools based on modern NLP models and integrate them into the respective learning management systems; those tools should help in translating the automation goals requested by their instructors into prediction targets, take relevant data as input and allow for evaluating the predictions.

Uncontrolled Keywords: adaptivity, artificial intelligence, digital learning, large language models, learner support, natural language processing, peer‐feedback
Status: Publisher's Version
URN: urn:nbn:de:tuda-tuprints-246814
Classification DDC: 000 Generalities, computers, information > 004 Computer science
300 Social sciences > 370 Education
Divisions: 20 Department of Computer Science > Ubiquitous Knowledge Processing
Zentrale Einrichtungen > hessian.AI - The Hessian Center for Artificial Intelligence
Date Deposited: 09 Feb 2024 13:54
Last Modified: 11 Apr 2024 07:48
SWORD Depositor: Deep Green
URI: https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/24681
PPN: 517030004
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