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Game-Based Simulation and Study of Pedestrian-Automated Vehicle Interactions

Pappas, Georgios ; Siegel, Joshua E. ; Kassens-Noor, Eva ; Rutkowski, Jacob ; Politopoulos, Konstantinos ; Zorpas, Antonis A. (2022)
Game-Based Simulation and Study of Pedestrian-Automated Vehicle Interactions.
In: Automation, 2022, 3 (3)
doi: 10.26083/tuprints-00022191
Article, Secondary publication, Publisher's Version

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Item Type: Article
Type of entry: Secondary publication
Title: Game-Based Simulation and Study of Pedestrian-Automated Vehicle Interactions
Language: English
Date: 5 September 2022
Place of Publication: Darmstadt
Year of primary publication: 2022
Publisher: MDPI
Journal or Publication Title: Automation
Volume of the journal: 3
Issue Number: 3
DOI: 10.26083/tuprints-00022191
Corresponding Links:
Origin: Secondary publication DeepGreen

We identify the need for enhanced pedestrian–vehicle simulation tools and build such a tool to explore the interaction among pedestrian "players" and virtual human- and automated-vehicles for different scenarios taking place in an urban environment. We first present contemporary research tools and then propose the design and development of a new desktop application that facilitates pedestrian-point-of-view research. We then conduct a three-step user experience experiment, in which a small number of participants answer questions before and after using the application to interact with virtual human and automated vehicles in diverse road-crossing scenarios. Behavioral results observed in virtuality, especially when motivated by consequence, tend to simulate real life sufficiently well to inform design choices. From the simulation, we observed valuable insights into human–vehicle interactions. Upon completing this preliminary testing, we iterated the tool’s design and ultimately conducted an 89-participant study of human–vehicle interactions for three scenarios taking place in a virtual environment. Our tool raised participant awareness of autonomous vehicles and their capabilities and limitations, which is an important step in overcoming public distrust of AVs. We additionally saw that participants trust humans and technology less as drivers than in other contexts, and that pedestrians feel safer around vehicles with autonomy indicators. Further, we note that study participants increasingly feel safe with automated vehicles with increased exposure. These preliminary results, as well as the efficacy of the tool’s design, may inform future socio-technical design for automated vehicles and their human interactions.

Uncontrolled Keywords: gamification, simulation, self-driving vehicles, pedestrian interaction
Status: Publisher's Version
URN: urn:nbn:de:tuda-tuprints-221913
Classification DDC: 000 Generalities, computers, information > 004 Computer science
600 Technology, medicine, applied sciences > 620 Engineering and machine engineering
Divisions: 13 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Sciences > Institutes of Transportation > Institute for Transport Planning and Traffic Engineering
Date Deposited: 05 Sep 2022 13:22
Last Modified: 14 Nov 2023 19:05
SWORD Depositor: Deep Green
URI: https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/22191
PPN: 498944875
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