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Multi-parameter imaging of in-cylinder processes during transient engine operation for the investigation of soot formation

Fach, Christian ; Rödel, Nico ; Schorr, Jürgen ; Krüger, Christian ; Dreizler, Andreas ; Böhm, Benjamin (2023)
Multi-parameter imaging of in-cylinder processes during transient engine operation for the investigation of soot formation.
In: International Journal of Engine Research, 2022, 23 (9)
doi: 10.26083/tuprints-00022025
Article, Secondary publication, Publisher's Version

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Item Type: Article
Type of entry: Secondary publication
Title: Multi-parameter imaging of in-cylinder processes during transient engine operation for the investigation of soot formation
Language: English
Date: 28 November 2023
Place of Publication: Darmstadt
Year of primary publication: September 2022
Place of primary publication: London
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Journal or Publication Title: International Journal of Engine Research
Volume of the journal: 23
Issue Number: 9
DOI: 10.26083/tuprints-00022025
Corresponding Links:
Origin: Secondary publication DeepGreen

Transient engine operation of direct-injection spark ignition engines can result in high particulate number emissions. To investigate the causes of soot formation, an engine test rig was developed to perform detailed measurements of real transient operation. For this purpose, a single-cylinder full-metal engine with a real combustion chamber geometry was equipped with minimally invasive optical accesses. Simultaneous high-speed endoscopic PIV, spray visualization, and combustion imaging were applied to investigate the in-cylinder processes in detail. Endoscopic PIV was first compared in the central symmetry plane with classical PIV performed at the equivalent optical engine at steady-state operation for verification. Then the engine parameters of a tip-in performed by the corresponding four-cylinder engine, which led to high particle number emissions, were applied to the single-cylinder engine. The engine parameters were in a good agreement and particle number emissions due to the maneuver were within the same range of several 10⁶ #/cm³. In total, 19 repetitions of the tip-in maneuver were analyzed with respect to the in-cylinder processes and repeatability of engine parameters. Furthermore, the in-cylinder flow field during the late compression stroke, flame propagation, and soot luminosity of single cycles during the tip-in indicated cause-and-effect chains for the formation of pool fire and soot at the injector tip. The direction of the flow below the spark plug influenced the direction of flame propagation. An early arrival of the flame enhanced the formation of soot from fuel films formed on the piston surface or at the injector. In engine applications, counter measures can be applied to reduce the particle number emissions when accounting for these indicated cause-and-effect chains.

Uncontrolled Keywords: High-speed particle image velocimetry, spray visualization, flame propagation, soot formation, endoscopic, internal combustion engine, transient engine operation
Status: Publisher's Version
URN: urn:nbn:de:tuda-tuprints-220253
Classification DDC: 600 Technology, medicine, applied sciences > 620 Engineering and machine engineering
Divisions: 16 Department of Mechanical Engineering > Institute of Reactive Flows and Diagnostics (RSM)
Date Deposited: 28 Nov 2023 10:36
Last Modified: 04 Dec 2023 14:55
SWORD Depositor: Deep Green
URI: https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/22025
PPN: 513620133
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