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4D rods: 3D structures via programmable 1D composite rods

Ding, Zhen ; Weeger, Oliver ; Qi, H. Jerry ; Dunn, Martin L. (2021)
4D rods: 3D structures via programmable 1D composite rods.
In: Materials and design, 137
doi: 10.26083/tuprints-00019837
Article, Secondary publication, Publisher's Version

Copyright Information: CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International - Creative Commons, Attribution NonCommercial, NoDerivs.

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Item Type: Article
Type of entry: Secondary publication
Title: 4D rods: 3D structures via programmable 1D composite rods
Language: English
Date: 2021
Place of Publication: Darmstadt
Publisher: Elsevier
Journal or Publication Title: Materials and design
Volume of the journal: 137
DOI: 10.26083/tuprints-00019837
Corresponding Links:
Origin: Secondary publication service

Slender 1D structures are ubiquitous in nature and engineering and serve as building blocks for 3D structures at scales ranging from molecular to architectural. 3D printing enables fabrication of such structures with geometrical complexity that cannot be produced easily by traditional manufacturing methods, but comes with a cost of long building time and need for supporting structures during printing. Some of these limitations are overcome here through an approach that prints 1D rods with composite cross-sections, programmed to deform into a prescribed 3D shape simply upon heating. The straight or curved composite rods consist of a glassy polymer and an elastomer that are bonded to each other as a result of the manufacturing process; the latter is programmed with a compressive stress during the printing process. When heated, the stiff glassy polymer softens, resulting in release of the stress in the elastomer, and causes the 1D structure to deform into a new permanent 3D configuration. The cross-section of the composite rods can be designed to enable deformation modes of bending and twisting, a combination of which can guide the 1D rod into almost any 3D shape. With the use of a nonlinear thermomechanical computational model, several 3D rod structures are designed and demonstrated, highlighting the potential for increased functionality with material and time savings.

Status: Publisher's Version
URN: urn:nbn:de:tuda-tuprints-198378
Additional Information:

3D printing, 4D printing, Rod structures, Self-assembly, Active composite

Classification DDC: 600 Technology, medicine, applied sciences > 600 Technology
600 Technology, medicine, applied sciences > 620 Engineering and machine engineering
Divisions: 16 Department of Mechanical Engineering > Cyber-Physical Simulation (CPS)
Date Deposited: 14 Dec 2021 10:09
Last Modified: 15 Aug 2023 07:12
URI: https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/19837
PPN: 510603351
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