Towards Efficient Lattice-Based Cryptography.
[Ph.D. Thesis], (2011)
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|Item Type:||Ph.D. Thesis|
|Title:||Towards Efficient Lattice-Based Cryptography|
One essential quest in cryptography is the search for hard instances of a given computational problem that is known to be hard in the worst-case. In lattice cryptography we are in the unique situation that we have found a way of picking random instances which are at least as hard as well-studied lattice problems in the worst-case. At the same time, no attack running in subexponential time is known to break these problems, even for an adversary using quantum computers. Virtually all public-key schemes in use today are subject to such attacks, and the development of quantum computers is actively pursued, so it is prudent to investigate lattice-based alternatives. There are two fundamental open problems in lattice cryptography today and this thesis contributes to solving them. First, there exists a widely used efficiency improvement that allows for trapdoors whose asymptotic keysize and evaluation time are both quasilinear in the dimension of an associated lattice. This is accomplished by restricting oneself to lattices with special structure, so-called ideal lattices. This entails the use of newer security assumptions, but these have not been analyzed thoroughly so far. We start this work by comparing the class of ideal lattice problems with its general counterpart in terms of size. Affirming folklore, we find the number of restricted instances among all instances to be asymptotically negligible for those classes of lattices suggested for practical use. The second open problem is that while the connection to worst-case problems is well understood, the practical hardness of the related average-case problems is not. Specifically, there have been parameters suggested for practical usage, where current lattice basis reduction algorithms can solve these worst-case problems, but the related average-case problems, which these are reduced to and which represent the basis of practical security of the cryptosystems, are completely infeasible. In most cases, this lack of understanding has lead either to a very conservative choice of parameters, or none at all. This in turn makes it impossible for the resulting lattice schemes to compete with their counterparts based on other paradigms. We further the understanding of this practical security and at the same time improve the efficiency of several common related cryptographic schemes. Among other things, we find that for the SWIFFT compression function, solving certain problems closely related to finding collisions is easier than previously thought and we suggest efficient replacement parameters. We propose a novel zero-knowledge identification scheme that, to our knowledge, beats all competing post-quantum schemes, even those based on other paradigms. Possibly most important, we help to tighten the efficiency gap between lattice encryption schemes that are provably secure and the acclaimed ad-hoc encryption scheme NTRU. This is done by unifying many recent developments into a new provably secure design and providing a comprehensive analysis of practical security, which together results in a great leap of efficiency.
|Classification DDC:||000 Allgemeines, Informatik, Informationswissenschaft > 004 Informatik
500 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik > 510 Mathematik
|Divisions:||Fachbereich Informatik > Theoretische Informatik - Kryptographie und Computeralgebra|
|Date Deposited:||12 Jan 2011 10:35|
|Last Modified:||07 Dec 2012 11:59|
|Referees:||Buchmann, Prof. Dr. Johannes and Peikert, Prof. Dr. Christopher|
|Refereed:||20 December 2010|
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