Khuat, Viet Hung
Traffic Management in Motorcycle Dependent Cities.
Technische Universität, Darmstadt
[Ph.D. Thesis], (2007)
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|Item Type:||Ph.D. Thesis|
|Title:||Traffic Management in Motorcycle Dependent Cities|
Many Asian cities, such as Hanoi, Bangkok, and Taipei, experience a special situation, the so-called motorcycle dependence. In these cities, urban transport system is dominated by the motorcycle. This domination influences urban form and land use pattern of the cities by remaining and growing of many two-wheeler accessed only blocks and motorcycle-based land uses. Nowadays, people in motorcycle dependent cities (MDCs) are quickly shifting to travelling by car instead of motorcycle. Under the conditions of high-density urban area, lack of roads and parking facilities, poor public transport, and immaturity of society in motorisation of transport of MDCs, the transport problems, namely accident, congestion, and pollution, have become very different from and much severer than those in developed cities have. While MDCs are still poor and having competing needs in using their limited resources, they cannot dream have an ordinary automobile or transit oriented transport system as in developed cities. In the vision to achieve a liveable city with a sustainable transport system, a traffic management concept is a critical means for MDCs’ in dealing with transport problems in short terms, while infrastructure and heavy public transport are the long-term solutions. This concept starts with a Strategic Policy Framework, in which a hierarchy of vision, goals and objectives have been completely formulated. The applicable measures are recommended by establishing and applying a multi-criteria assessment model, in which the effectiveness of the measure is assessed by the level of achievement of four strategic goals for a sustainable transport system: (i) to ensure urban mobility, (ii) to ensure urban traffic safety, (iii) to protect urban environment, and (iv) to improve urban and regional economy. Applicability of the measure is assessed indirectly by the level of difficulty in overcoming four basic barriers: (i) cost of measure, (ii) technical systems, (iii) institutional participation, and (iv) public acceptance. After the assessment, thirty-four candidate measures are classified into four groups, in which the first priority group was recommended to apply generally in Motorcycle Dependent Cities. This group consists of fifteen highly effective and applicable traffic management measures in five modal categories. For public transport, five measures are recommended: (i) Routing Improvement, (ii) Scheduling improvement, (iii) Public Transport User Incentive, (iv) Public Transport Information Service, and (v) Public Transport Management Centre. Three Non-motorised transport measures are Sidewalks and Pedestrians Crossing Facilities, Non-motorised Transport Zone, Non-motorised Transport Information Service. Only two measures for individual motorised vehicles are Vehicle Taxes and Duties, and Vehicle Registration Control. For multimodal transport, four measures have been selected, including Signalisation of Intersection Control; Traffic Calming and Speed Reduction; Urban Traffic Information Service; Land Use Change. Finally, City Logistic Management System is the only freight transport improvement measures. A two-steps strategy formulation model has been established to combine the applicable measures into strategies. Two crucial principles should be followed in integrating traffic management measures are (i) to achieve synergic effectiveness, and (ii) to reduce and eliminate barriers in implementation. Four major traffic management strategies have been formulated. Traffic Avoiding Strategy consists of two traffic management measures, Land Use Change and City Logistic, which are defined as the Basic Measures of the strategy. Traffic Shifting Strategy includes ten Basic Measures, which are five public transport measures (PT Routing, PT Scheduling, PT User Incentives, PT Information, Management Centre), three NMT measures (Pedestrian Facilities, NMT Zone, NMT Information) and two IMV measures (Taxes and Duties, Registration Control). In assessing the capability of Supportive Measure, Signalisation is selected to provide all required intersection operation and control systems. Traffic Controlling Strategy includes desirably five Basic Measures, which are one non-motorised transport measure (Pedestrian Facilities), one measure for IMVs (Registration Control) and other three multimodal measures (Signalisation, Traffic Calming, Traffic Information). The Integrated Traffic Management Strategy includes seventeen traffic management measures. Fifteen Basic Measures are expected to influence urban transport system in all three areas: to avoid traffic, to shift traffic, and to control traffic. The inclusion of other two economic measures, Road Pricing and Parking Pricing, as financial Supportive Measures for the strategy was recommended. Finally, a proposal for application of traffic management strategies and measures has been adopted for Hanoi, Vietnam. The urban transport conditions of Hanoi City are defined in four typical urban transport situations as follows: (i) Overall Conurbation, (ii) City Centre, (iii) Arterial, and (iv) Two-wheeler accessed only blocks. In correspondence with these situations, applications of four typical traffic management strategies are examined as follows: Traffic Avoiding Strategy is applicable to Overall Conurbation and the City Centre of Hanoi in a large scale and medium-term project. The smaller scale and short-term of this strategy can be applied effectively for the two-wheeler blocks. Traffic Shifting Strategy can be applied for large urban areas, Conurbation and City Centre, in which the later situations, Arterials and Two-Wheeler Block, are included. Traffic Controlling Strategy can be applied in all four situations and it is the major traffic strategy to be recommended for Arterials and Two-Wheeler Block. Integrated Traffic Management Strategy is suitable to apply for Overall Conurbation of Hanoi. Reduced versions can be considered to apply to the City Centre. The proposal also includes discussions about application of the fist priority traffic management measures. Regarding scale of application, seven measures are fully applicable to all transport modes under a general strategy. Eleven measures are fully applicable and other twos are partly applicable under a modal strategic approach. Ten measures can be applied to a facility or service unit of certain transport mode. Regarding the area of application, except the NMT Zone, all measures are fully applicable to the Conurbation. Twelve measures are fully applicable for the City Centre, while only seven measures can be applied fully along the urban Arterials, and six measures are fully applicable to the Two-Wheeler Block. For implementing these measures, Hanoi Department of Transport and Urban Works and Services and its subordinate bureaus are the key authorities for the planning, provision and operation of the measures. For the enforcement and control of traffic signal system, Hanoi Traffic Police Bureau is the main responsible institution. Regarding public transport, Hanoi Transport Corporation (TRANSERCO) is the most important operator in both passenger and freight transport. The key political decision-makers in Hanoi are Hanoi People Committee and Hanoi People Council. However, the most powerful body is the City Communist Party Committee. As the most important finding, The Traffic Management Concept, which included a Strategic Policy Framework (as the goals) and the traffic management strategies and measures (as the means) can be widely applied for the motorcycle dependent cities and other developing cities in Asia and other regions. In addition, the Assessment Model for Measures and the Strategy Formulation Model are applicable and can be further developed to be comprehensive and quantitative model and sub-models. Finally, the proposal for applications of Strategies and Measures in Hanoi should be further developed at the project level for implementation.
|Place of Publication:||Darmstadt|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||Verkehrsmanagement, Motorrad|
|Divisions:||13 Fachbereich Bau- und Umweltingenieurwissenschaften|
|Date Deposited:||17 Oct 2008 09:22|
|Last Modified:||07 Dec 2012 11:52|
|Referees:||Boltze, Prof. Dr.- Manfred and Retzko, em. Prof. Hans-Georg|
|Advisors:||Boltze, Prof. Dr.- Manfred|
|Refereed:||5 December 2006|