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Endochondral Ossification Is Accelerated in Cholinesterase-Deficient Mice and in Avian Mesenchymal Micromass Cultures

Spieker, Janine and Mudersbach, Thomas and Vogel-Höpker, Astrid and Layer, Paul G. :
Endochondral Ossification Is Accelerated in Cholinesterase-Deficient Mice and in Avian Mesenchymal Micromass Cultures.
[Online-Edition]
In: PLOS ONE, 12 (1) ISSN 1932-6203
[Article], (2017)

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Item Type: Article
Title: Endochondral Ossification Is Accelerated in Cholinesterase-Deficient Mice and in Avian Mesenchymal Micromass Cultures
Language: English
Abstract:

Most components of the cholinergic system are detected in skeletogenic cell types in vitro, yet the function of this system in skeletogenesis remains unclear. Here, we analyzed endochondral ossification in mutant murine fetuses, in which genes of the rate-limiting cholinergic enzymes acetyl- (AChE), or butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), or both were deleted (called here A-B+, A+B-, A-B-, respectively). In all mutant embryos bone growth and cartilage remodeling into mineralizing bone were accelerated, as revealed by Alcian blue (A-blu) and Alizarin red (A-red) staining. In A+B- and A-B- onset of mineralization was observed before E13.5, about 2 days earlier than in wild type and A-B+ mice. In all mutants between E18.5 to birth A-blu staining disappeared from epiphyses prematurely. Instead, A-blu+ cells were dislocated into diaphyses, most pronounced so in A-B- mutants, indicating additive effects of both missing ChEs in A-B- mutant mice. The remodeling effects were supported by in situ hybridization (ISH) experiments performed on cryosections from A-B- mice, in which Ihh, Runx2, MMP-13, ALP, Col-II and Col-X were considerably decreased, or had disappeared between E18.5 and P0. With a second approach, we applied an improved in vitro micromass model from chicken limb buds that allowed histological distinction between areas of cartilage, apoptosis and mineralization. When treated with the AChE inhibitor BW284c51, or with nicotine, there was decrease in cartilage and accelerated mineralization, suggesting that these effects were mediated through nicotinic receptors (α7-nAChR). We conclude that due to absence of either one or both cholinesterases in KO mice, or inhibition of AChE in chicken micromass cultures, there is increase in cholinergic signalling, which leads to increased chondroblast production and premature mineralization, at the expense of incomplete chondrogenic differentiation. This emphasizes the importance of cholinergic signalling in cartilage and bone formation.

Journal or Publication Title: PLOS ONE
Volume: 12
Number: 1
Publisher: PLOS
Classification DDC: 500 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik > 570 Biowissenschaften, Biologie
Divisions: 10 Department of Biology > Developmental Biology and Neurogenetics
Date Deposited: 22 Dec 2017 10:40
Last Modified: 22 Dec 2017 10:40
Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170252
URN: urn:nbn:de:tuda-tuprints-71662
URI: http://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/7166
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