Fault-Tolerant Spatio-Temporal Compression Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks.
Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt
[Ph.D. Thesis], (2017)
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|Item Type:||Ph.D. Thesis|
|Title:||Fault-Tolerant Spatio-Temporal Compression Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks|
Wireless sensor networks are often deployed for environmental sampling and data gathering. A typical wireless sensor network consists, from hundreds to thousands, of battery powered sensor nodes fitted with various sensors to sample the environmental attributes, and one or more base stations, called the sink. Sensor nodes have limited computing power, memory and battery. Sensor nodes are wirelessly interconnected and transmit the sampled data in a multihop fashion to the sink. The sheer number of sensor nodes and the amount of sampled data can generate enormous amount of data to be transmitted to the sink, which subsequently can transform into network congestion problem resulting into data losses and rapid battery drain. Hence, one of the main challenges is to reduce the number of transmissions both to accommodate to the network bandwidth and to reduce the energy consumption. One possibility of reducing the data volume would be to reduce the sampling rates and shutdown sensor nodes. However, it can affect the spatial and temporal data resolution. Hence, we propose a compression scheme to minimize the transmissions instead of reducing the sampling.
The sensor nodes are vulnerable to external/environmental effects and, being relatively cheap, are susceptible to various hardware faults, e.g., sensor saturation, memory corruption. These factors can cause the sensor nodes to malfunction or sample erroneous data. Hence, the second biggest challenge in data gathering is to be able to tolerate such faults.
In this thesis we develop a spatio-temporal compression scheme that detects data redundancies both in space and time and applies data modeling techniques to compress the data to address the large data volume problem. The proposed scheme not only reduces the data volume but also the number of transmissions needed to transport the data to the sink, reducing the overall energy consumption. The proposed spatio-temporal compression scheme has the following major components:
Temporal Data Modeling: Models are constructed from the sampled data of the sensor nodes, which are then transmitted to the sink instead of the raw samples. Low computing power, limited memory and battery force us to avoid computationally expensive operations and use simple models, which offer limited data compressibility (fewer samples are approximated). However, we are able to extend the compressibility in time through our model caching scheme while maintaining simple models.
Hierarchical Clustering: The data sampled by the sensor nodes is often not only temporally correlated but also spatially correlated. Hence, the sensor nodes are initially grouped into 1-hop clusters based on sampled data. Only a single model is constructed for one cluster, essentially reducing the sampled data of all the sensor nodes to a single data model. However, we also observed through experiments that the data correlations often extend beyond 1-hop clusters. Hence, we devised a hierarchical clustering scheme, which uses the model of one 1-hop cluster to also approximate the sampled data in the neighboring clusters. All the 1-hop clusters approximated by a given model are grouped into a larger cluster. The devised scheme determines the clusters that can construct the data models, the dissimilation of the model to the neighboring clusters and finally the transmission of the data model to the sink. The accuracy of data to the single sensor node level is maintained through outliers for each sensor node, which are maintained by the cluster heads of the respective 1-hop clusters and cumulatively transmitted to the sink.
The proposed spatio-temporal compression scheme reduces the total data volume, is computationally inexpensive, reduces the total network traffic and hence minimizes the overall energy consumption while maintaining the data accuracy as per the user requirements.
This thesis also addresses the second problem related to data gathering in sensor networks caused by the faults that results into data errors. We have developed a fault-tolerance scheme that can detect the anomalies in the sampled data and classify them as errors and can often correct the resulting data errors. The proposed scheme can detect data errors that may arise from a range of fault classes including sporadic and permanent faults. It is also able to distinguish the data patterns that may occur due to both the data errors and a physical event. The proposed scheme is quite light weight as it exploits the underlying mechanisms already implemented by spatio-temporal compression scheme. The proposed fault-tolerance scheme uses the data models constructed by the compression scheme to additionally detect data errors and subsequently correct the erroneous samples.
|Place of Publication:||Darmstadt|
|Classification DDC:||000 Allgemeines, Informatik, Informationswissenschaft > 004 Informatik|
|Divisions:||20 Department of Computer Science > Embedded Systems and Applications
20 Department of Computer Science > Embedded Sensing Systems
|Date Deposited:||06 Mar 2017 11:46|
|Last Modified:||06 Mar 2017 11:46|
|Referees:||Suri, Prof. Dr. Neeraj and Becker, Prof. Dr. Christian and Katzenbeisser, Prof. Dr. Stefan and Schürr, Prof. Dr. Andy and Fischlin, Prof. Dr. Marc|
|Refereed:||4 November 2016|
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