Khalilbeigi Khameneh, Mohammadreza
Physical Interaction Concepts for Knowledge Work Practices.
TU Prints, Darmstadt
[Ph.D. Thesis], (2014)
Available under Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives, 2.5.
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|Item Type:||Ph.D. Thesis|
|Title:||Physical Interaction Concepts for Knowledge Work Practices|
The majority of workplaces in developed countries concern knowledge work. Accordingly, the IT industry and research made great efforts for many years to support knowledge workers -- and indeed, computer-based information workplaces have come of age. Nevertheless, knowledge work in the physical world has still quite a number of unique advantages, and the integration of physical and digital knowledge work leaves a lot to be desired. The present thesis aims at reducing these deficiencies; thereby, it leverages late technology trends, in particular interactive tabletops and resizable hand-held displays.
We start from the observation that knowledge workers develop highly efficient practices, skills, and dexterity of working with physical objects in the real world, whether content-unrelated (coffee mugs, stationery etc.) or content-related (books, notepads etc.). Among the latter, paper-based objects -- the notorious analog information bearers -- represent by far the most relevant (super-) category. We discern two kinds of practices: collective practices concern the arrangement of objects with respect to other objects and the desk, while specific practices operate on individual objects and usually alter them. The former are mainly employed for an effective management of the physical desktop workspace -- e.g., everyday objects are frequently moved on tables to optimize the desk as a workplace -- or an effective organization of paper-based documents on the desktop -- e.g., stacking, fanning out, sorting etc. The latter concern the specific manipulation of physical objects related to the task at hand, i.e. knowledge work. Widespread assimilated practices concern not only writing on, annotating, or spatially arranging paper documents but also sophisticated manipulations -- such as flipping, folding, bending, etc.
Compared to the wealth of such well-established practices in the real world, those for digital knowledge work are bound by the indirection imposed by mouse and keyboard input, where the mouse provided such a great advancement that researchers were seduced to calling its use "direct manipulation". In this light, the goal of this thesis can be rephrased as exploring novel interaction concepts for knowledge workers that i) exploit the flexible and direct manipulation potential of physical objects (as present in the real world) for more intuitive and expressive interaction with digital content, and ii) improve the integration of the physical and digital knowledge workplace. Thereby, two directions of research are pursued. Firstly, the thesis investigates the collective practices executed on the desks of knowledge workers, thereby discerning content-related (more precisely, paper-based documents) and content-unrelated object -- this part is coined as table-centric approaches and leverages the technology of interactive tabletops. Secondly, the thesis looks at specific practices executed on paper, obviously concentrating on knowledge related tasks due to the specific role of paper -- this part is coined as paper-centric approaches and leverages the affordances of paper-like displays, more precisely of resizable i.e. rollable and foldable displays.
The table-centric approach leads to the challenge of blending interactive tabletop technology with the established use of physical desktop workspaces. We first conduct an exploratory user study to investigate behavioral and usage patterns of interaction with both physical and digital documents on tabletop surfaces while performing tasks such as grouping and browsing. Based on results of the study, we contribute two sets of interaction and visualization concepts -- coined as PaperTop and ObjecTop -- that concern specific paper based practices and collective practices, respectively. Their efficiency and effectiveness are evaluated in a series of user studies.
As mentioned, the paper-centric perspective leverages late ultra-thin resizable display technology. We contribute two sets of novel interaction concepts again -- coined as FoldMe and Xpaaand -- that respond to the design space of dual-sided foldable and of rollout displays, respectively. In their design, we leverage the physical act of resizing not "just" for adjusting the screen real estate but also for interactively performing operations. Initial user studies show a great potential for interaction with digital contents, i.e. for knowledge work.
|Place of Publication:||Darmstadt|
|Classification DDC:||000 Allgemeines, Informatik, Informationswissenschaft > 004 Informatik|
|Divisions:||20 Department of Computer Science
20 Department of Computer Science > Telecooperation
|Date Deposited:||22 May 2014 10:50|
|Last Modified:||22 May 2014 10:50|
|Referees:||Mühlhäuser, Prof. Dr. Max and Hollan, Prof. Dr. James D. and Steimle, Dr. Jürgen|
|Refereed:||8 May 2014|